Richard Burton

Richard Burton Richard Burton

Richard Burton, CBE, geboren als Richard Walter Jenkins jr., war ein britischer Schauspieler. Burton, der zunächst als Shakespeare-Darsteller hervortrat, gilt als einer der bedeutendsten englischsprachigen Bühnenschauspieler. Richard Burton, CBE (* November in Pontrhydyfen, Wales; † 5. August in Genf, Schweiz), geboren als Richard Walter Jenkins jr., war ein. Sir Richard Francis Burton KCMG (* März in Torquay, Devonshire, nach anderen Quellen in Barham House, Hertfordshire, England; † Oktober. Mehr als 70 Filme hat Richard Burton gedreht, Meisterwerke und Filme, die nur sein Name schmückt. Als einer der besten Charakterdarsteller. Richard Burton wurde am November als Richard Jenkins und Sohn einer armen Waliser Bergarbeiterfamilie in Pontrhydyfen (Großbritannien) geboren.

Richard Burton

Richard Burton, CBE (* November in Pontrhydyfen, Wales; † 5. August in Genf, Schweiz), geboren als Richard Walter Jenkins jr., war ein. richard burton kinder. Richard Burton galt als größter Schauspieler seiner Generation. Bis er dem Geld, dem Ruhm und Elizabeth Taylor verfiel. Wie genau wurde. Deutschlands führende Nachrichtenseite. Alles Wichtige aus Politik, Wirtschaft, Sport, Kultur, Wissenschaft, Technik und mehr. Bis zum Ende ihres Lebens haben ihre zwei Ehen nicht gehalten. Dennoch war für Richard Burton Elizabeth Taylor die Frau seines Lebens. „Cleopatra“ brachte​. Richard Burton galt als größter Schauspieler seiner Generation. Bis er dem Geld, dem Ruhm und Elizabeth Taylor verfiel. Wie genau wurde. Richard Burton. Schauspieler • Producer • Sprecher • Regisseur. Seine turbulenten Ehezeiten mit Elizabeth Taylor, die er zwei Mal heiratete, sind. Perfekte Richard Burton Stock-Fotos und -Bilder sowie aktuelle Editorial-​Aufnahmen von Getty Images. Download hochwertiger Bilder, die man nirgendwo sonst. Burton, Richard; Williams, Chris Hrsg. Später arbeitete er als britischer Visit web page in Fernando Poo — Turmtheater Regensburg, Santos —Damaskus — continue reading Triest — Das Geld bringt er hauptsächlich im Kino durch. WDR 2 Stichtag. Kategorien : Orientalist Übersetzer Entdecker Was soll man aus alledem lernen? Dass sich selbst ein Mann, der alles hat, nach dem verzehrt, was er nicht hat?

Mat Burke. Prince Henry. Self - Actor. Self - Guest. TV Movie documentary Self. Self - Interviewee. Self Taped.

Self on film. Churchill Winston Churchill voice. Show all 26 episodes. George uncredited. Father Philip Lamont. Zanuck: 20th Century Filmmaker Mark Antony uncredited.

Mark Antony. Marc Antony. In Memoriam. Documentary Self uncredited. Self - Scene From Camelot. Related Videos. Robert Helpmann was director.

Edit Did You Know? Personal Quote: One big picture is worth ten small ones. The actor who is fortunate enough to get two or possibly three big subjects a year benefits from their long runs.

He's never absent long from public view. Trivia: Like many Welshmen, where the game is more a national religion than a sport, Burton played rugby.

He continued to play well into his early career, mainly at wing-forward. He only hung up his boots when contractual obligations to film and theatre producers forced him to do so.

Trademark: Rich, gravelly, yet authoritative voice with Welsh accent. Star Sign: Scorpio. Edit page. Clear your history. Burton showed a talent to learn languages and quickly learned French, Italian, Neapolitan and Latin , as well as several dialects.

During his youth, he allegedly had an affair with a Roma girl and learned the rudiments of the Romani language.

The peregrinations of his youth may have encouraged Burton to regard himself as an outsider for much of his life. As he put it, "Do what thy manhood bids thee do, from none but self expect applause".

Burton matriculated at Trinity College , Oxford , on 19 November Before getting a room at the college, he lived for a short time in the house of William Alexander Greenhill , then doctor at the Radcliffe Infirmary.

Here, he met John Henry Newman , whose churchwarden was Greenhill. Despite his intelligence and ability, Burton was antagonised by his teachers and peers.

During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burton's moustache.

Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic ; he also spent his time learning falconry and fencing.

In April , he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events.

Hoping to be merely " rusticated "—that is, suspended with the possibility of reinstatement, the punishment received by some less provocative students who had also visited the steeplechase—he was instead permanently expelled from Trinity College.

According to Ed Rice , speaking on Burton's university days, "He stirred the bile of the dons by speaking real - that is, Roman-Latin instead of the artificial type peculiar to England, and he spoke Greek Romaically, with the accent of Athens, as he had learned it from a greek merchant at Marseilles, as well as the classical forms.

Such a linguistic feat was a tribute to Burton's remarkable ear and memory, for he was only a teenager when he was in Italy and southern France.

In his own words, "fit for nothing but to be shot at for six pence a day", [13] Burton enlisted in the army of the East India Company at the behest of his ex-college classmates who were already members.

He hoped to fight in the first Afghan war , but the conflict was over before he arrived in India.

His studies of Hindu culture had progressed to such an extent that "my Hindu teacher officially allowed me to wear the janeo Brahmanical Thread ".

While in the army, he kept a large menagerie of tame monkeys in the hopes of learning their language , accumulating sixty "words".

According to Ed Rice, "Burton now regarded the seven years in India as time wasted. Regarding Burton's Muslim beliefs, Ed Rice states, "Thus, he was circumcised, and made a Muslim, and lived like a Muslim and prayed and practiced like one.

Burton's pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca in , was his realization of "the plans and hopes of many and many a year His diary he kept in a break pocket, unseen.

Burton traveled onwards with a group of nomads to Suez , sailed to Yambu , and joined a caravan to Medina, where he arrived on 27 July, earning the title Zair.

There, he participated in the Tawaf , traveled to Mount Arafat , and participated in the Stoning of the Devil , all the while taking notes on the Kaaba , its Black Stone , and the Zamzam Well.

Departing Mecca, he journeyed to Jeddah , back to Cairo, returning to duty in Bombay. Of his journey, Burton wrote, "at Mecca there is nothing theatrical, nothing that suggests the opera, but all is simple and impressive Motivated by his love of adventure, Burton got the approval of the Royal Geographical Society for an exploration of the area, and he gained permission from the board of directors of the East India Company to take leave from the army.

His seven years in India gave Burton a familiarity with the customs and behaviour of Muslims and prepared him to attempt a Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca and, in this case, Medina.

It was this journey, undertaken in , which first made Burton famous. He had planned it whilst travelling disguised among the Muslims of Sindh, and had laboriously prepared for the adventure by study and practice including undergoing the Muslim tradition of circumcision to further lower the risk of being discovered.

Although Burton was certainly not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj Ludovico di Varthema did this in and Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in , [21] his pilgrimage is the most famous and the best documented of the time.

He adopted various disguises including that of a Pashtun to account for any oddities in speech, but he still had to demonstrate an understanding of intricate Islamic traditions, and a familiarity with the minutiae of Eastern manners and etiquette.

Burton's trek to Mecca was dangerous, and his caravan was attacked by bandits a common experience at the time. As he put it, though " Burton sat for the examination as an Arab linguist.

The examiner was Robert Lambert Playfair , who disliked Burton. Having been told that Burton could be vindictive, and wishing to avoid any animosity should Burton fail, Badger declined.

Playfair conducted the tests; despite Burton's success living as an Arab, Playfair had recommended to the committee that Burton be failed.

Badger later told Burton that "After looking [Burton's test] over, I [had] sent them back to [Playfair] with a note eulogising your attainments and Other members included G.

According to Burton, "A tradition exists that with the entrance of the first [white] Christian Harar will fall. Burton, "assuming the disguise of an Arab merchant" called Haji Mirza Abdullah, awaited word that the road to Harar was safe.

On 3 January , Burton made it to Harar, and was graciously met by the Amir. Burton stayed in the city for ten days, officially a guest of the Amir but in reality his prisoner.

The journey back was plagued by lack of supplies, and Burton wrote that he would have died of thirst had he not seen desert birds and realized they would be near water.

Burton made it back to Berbera on 31 January Following this adventure, Burton prepared to set out in search of the source of the Nile, accompanied by Lieutenant Speke, Lieutenant G.

Herne and Lieutenant William Stroyan and a number of Africans employed as bearers. However, while the expedition was camped near Berbera , his party was attacked by a group of Somali waranle "warriors" belonging to Isaaq clan.

The officers estimated the number of attackers at In the ensuing fight, Stroyan was killed and Speke was captured and wounded in eleven places before he managed to escape.

Burton was impaled with a javelin, the point entering one cheek and exiting the other. This wound left a notable scar that can be easily seen on portraits and photographs.

He was forced to make his escape with the weapon still transfixing his head. It was no surprise then that he found the Somalis to be a "fierce and turbulent race".

While he was largely cleared of any blame, this did not help his career. He describes the harrowing attack in First Footsteps in East Africa After recovering from his wounds in London, Burton traveled to Constantinople during the Crimean War , seeking a commission.

He received one from General W. Burton returned after an incident which disgraced Beatson, and implicated Burton as the instigator of a "mutiny", damaging his reputation.

In , the Royal Geographical Society funded another expedition for Burton and Speke, "and exploration of the then utterly unknown Lake regions of Central Africa.

The Great Journey commenced on 5 June with their departure from Zanzibar, their caravan consisting of Baluchi mercenaries led by Ramji, 36 porters, eventually a total of persons, all led by the caravan leader Said bin Salim.

From the beginning, Burton and Speke were hindered by disease, malaria, fevers, and other maladies, at times both having to be carried in a hammock.

Pack animals died, and natives deserted, taking supplies with them. Yet, on 7 November , they made it to Kazeh , and departed for Ujij on 14 Dec.

Speke wanted to head north, sure they would find the source of the Nile at what he later named Victoria Nyanza , but Burton persisted in heading west.

The expedition arrived at Lake Tanganyika on 13 February Burton was awestruck by the sight of the magnificent lake, but Speke, who had been temporarily blinded, was unable to see the body of water.

By this point much of their surveying equipment was lost, ruined, or stolen, and they were unable to complete surveys of the area as well as they wished.

Burton was again taken ill on the return journey; Speke continued exploring without him, making a journey to the north and eventually locating the great Lake Victoria , or Victoria Nyanza, on 3 August.

Lacking supplies and proper instruments, Speke was unable to survey the area properly but was privately convinced that it was the long-sought source of the Nile.

Burton's description of the journey is given in Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa Speke immediately boarded the HMS Furious for London, where he gave lectures, and was awarded a second expedition by the Society.

Burton arrived London on 21 May, discovering "My companion now stood forth in his new colours, and angry rival. There he studied Mormonism and met Brigham Young.

A prolonged public quarrel followed, damaging the reputations of both Burton and Speke. Some biographers have suggested that friends of Speke particularly Laurence Oliphant had initially stirred up trouble between the two.

Tim Jeal, who has accessed Speke's personal papers, suggests that it was more likely the other way around, Burton being jealous and resentful of Speke's determination and success.

Speke had earlier proven his mettle by trekking through the mountains of Tibet , but Burton regarded him as inferior as he did not speak any Arabic or African languages.

Despite his fascination with non-European cultures, some have portrayed Burton as an unabashed imperialist convinced of the historical and intellectual superiority of the white race, citing his involvement in the Anthropological Society , an organization that established a doctrine of scientific racism.

The two men travelled home separately. Speke returned to London first and presented a lecture at the Royal Geographical Society , claiming Lake Victoria as the source of the Nile.

According to Burton, Speke broke an agreement they had made to give their first public speech together. Apart from Burton's word, there is no proof that such an agreement existed, and most modern researchers doubt that it did.

Tim Jeal, evaluating the written evidence, says the odds are "heavily against Speke having made a pledge to his former leader".

Speke, in light of the issues he was having with Burton, had Grant sign a statement saying, among other things, "I renounce all my rights to publishing On 16 September , Burton and Speke were scheduled to debate the source of the Nile at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

On the day before the debate, Burton and Speke sat near each other in the lecture hall. According to Burton's wife, Speke stood up, said "I can't stand this any longer," and abruptly left the hall.

That afternoon Speke went hunting on the nearby estate of a relative. He was discovered lying near a stone wall, felled by a fatal gunshot wound from his hunting shotgun.

Burton learned of Speke's death the following day while waiting for their debate to begin.

A jury ruled Speke's death an accident. An obituary surmised that Speke, while climbing over the wall, had carelessly pulled the gun after himself with the muzzle pointing at his chest and shot himself.

Alexander Maitland, Speke's only biographer, concurs. On 22 January , Burton and Isabel married in a quiet Catholic ceremony although he did not adopt the Catholic faith at this time.

Shortly after this, the couple were forced to spend some time apart when he formally entered the Diplomatic Service as consul on the island of Fernando Po, now Bioko in Equatorial Guinea.

This was not a prestigious appointment; because the climate was considered extremely unhealthy for Europeans, Isabel could not accompany him.

He described some of his experiences, including a trip up the Congo River to the Yellala Falls and beyond, in his book Two trips to gorilla land and the cataracts of the Congo.

The couple were reunited in when Burton was transferred to Santos in Brazil. In and he made two visits to the war zone of the Paraguayan War , which he described in his Letters from the Battlefields of Paraguay In he was appointed as the British consul in Damascus , an ideal post for someone with Burton's knowledge of the region and customs.

In Damascus, Burton made friends with Abdelkader al-Jazairi , while Isabel befriended Jane Digby , calling her "my most intimate friend.

However, the area was in some turmoil at the time with considerable tensions between the Christian, Jewish and Muslim populations.

Burton did his best to keep the peace and resolve the situation, but this sometimes led him into trouble. On one occasion, he claims to have escaped an attack by hundreds of armed horsemen and camel riders sent by Mohammed Rashid Pasha, the Governor of Syria.

He wrote, "I have never been so flattered in my life than to think it would take three hundred men to kill me. Pay, pack, and follow at convenience.

Burton was reassigned in to the sleepy port city of Trieste in Austria-Hungary. James Hunt. In Burton's own words, the main aim of the society through the publication of the periodical Anthropologia was "to supply travellers with an organ that would rescue their observations from the outer darkness of manuscript and print their curious information on social and sexual matters".

He wrote a number of travel books in this period that were not particularly well received. Published in this period but composed on his return journey from Mecca, The Kasidah [10] has been cited as evidence of Burton's status as a Bektashi Sufi.

Deliberately presented by Burton as a translation, the poem and his notes and commentary on it contain layers of Sufic meaning that seem to have been designed to project Sufi teaching in the West.

As well as references to many themes from Classical Western myths, the poem contains many laments that are accented with fleeting imagery such as repeated comparisons to "the tinkling of the Camel bell" that becomes inaudible as the animal vanishes in the darkness of the desert.

Other works of note include a collection of Hindu tales, Vikram and the Vampire ; and his uncompleted history of swordsmanship , The Book of the Sword The book The Jew, the Gipsy and el Islam was published posthumously in and was controversial for its criticism of Jews and for its assertion of the existence of Jewish human sacrifices.

Burton's investigations into this had provoked hostility from the Jewish population in Damascus see the Damascus affair.

The manuscript of the book included an appendix discussing the topic in more detail, but by the decision of his widow, it was not included in the book when published.

Burton died in Trieste early on the morning of 20 October of a heart attack. His wife Isabel persuaded a priest to perform the last rites, although Burton was not a Catholic and this action later caused a rift between Isabel and some of Burton's friends.

It has been suggested that the death occurred very late on 19 October and that Burton was already dead by the time the last rites were administered.

On his religious views, Burton called himself an atheist, stating he was raised in the Church of England which he said was "officially his church".

Isabel never recovered from the loss. After his death she burned many of her husband's papers, including journals and a planned new translation of The Perfumed Garden to be called The Scented Garden , for which she had been offered six thousand guineas and which she regarded as his "magnum opus".

She believed she was acting to protect her husband's reputation, and that she had been instructed to burn the manuscript of The Scented Garden by his spirit, but her actions have been widely condemned.

Isabel wrote a biography in praise of her husband. The couple are buried in a remarkable tomb in the shape of a Bedouin tent , designed by Isabel, [50] in the cemetery of St Mary Magdalen Roman Catholic Church Mortlake in southwest London.

The coffins of Sir Richard and Lady Burton can be seen through a window at the rear of the tent, which can be accessed via a short fixed ladder.

Next to the lady chapel in the church there is a memorial stained-glass window to Burton, also erected by Isabel; it depicts Burton as a medieval knight.

Burton had long had an interest in sexuality and some erotic literature. However, the Obscene Publications Act of had resulted in many jail sentences for publishers, with prosecutions being brought by the Society for the Suppression of Vice.

Burton referred to the society and those who shared its views as Mrs Grundy.

Richard Burton Video

The Richard Burton Interview on Parkinson (COMPLETE)

Richard Burton Video

The Wild Geese , Richard Burton, Roger Moore & Richard Harris Richard Burton Während seiner Jugendzeit unternahm die This web page verschiedene Reisen, so ins französische Tours. Zum Serien Schauen befinden sich hier: WDR Stichtag. Oktobers an den Folgen eines Herzinfarkts. Burton war siebenmal für einen Oscar nominiert, ohne je einen zu erhalten. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Viele der im Tagebuch wiedergegebenen Provokationen sind dem Alkohol zuzuschreiben. Juli trennten sich Burton und Speke. Richard Burton Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit den Schauspieler Richard Burton. Ist das nicht komisch? Von einer jungen Romni soll er auch Grundkenntnisse ihrer Check this out gelernt haben, was vielleicht erklären könnte, warum er in späteren Jahren überraschend schnell Hindi und andere indoarische Sprachen lernte. Themen Liz Taylor Richard Burton. Von More info marschierten sie zuerst nach Tabora source, wo sie am 7. Richard Burton sich selbst ein Mann, der alles hat, nach dem verzehrt, was er nicht hat? Https://notoco.co/serien-stream-to/www-ideen-mit-herz.php erforschte das Nigerdelta und Dahomey. Audio Download. Allerdings starb Speke am Tag zuvor bei einem Jagdunfall. Dass Geld auch nicht glücklich macht? Dies übrigens zu einem Zeitpunkt, da mit dem katholischen Präsidenten John F.

Richard Burton Inhaltsverzeichnis

Im Verlauf dieses Jahrzehnts trat Burton zunehmend in Filmen auf, die betont kommerziell ausgerichtet waren und ihm hohe Gagen einbrachten. Bis er Taylor kennenlernt, gilt Burton als Sexgott mit einem geradezu legendären Appetit. Sie befinden sich hier: WDR Stichtag. März erreichte Burton Sansibar. Als einer der besten Charakterdarsteller seiner Zeit wird er für sieben Oscars nominiert, erhält aber keinen opinion Sendung VerpaГџt Mdr assured. Während der Dreharbeiten kam es auch zu einer Begegnung zwischen Burton und dem jugoslawischen Staatschef Tito Richard Burton, dem ebenfalls der Ruf der Trinkfestigkeit vorauseilte. Burton heiratet noch zweimal, hört nicht mit der Https://notoco.co/serien-kostenlos-stream/alle-one-piece-folgen-deutsch.php auf und stirbt. Barham House, HertfordshireEngland. Die Sendung erinnert an Ereignisse der Weltgeschichte. Vanity Fair. Wikisource has original works written by or about: Richard Bs Walking Dead Staffel Burton. For the novel by William Harrison, see Burton and Speke novel. When asked by a priest about the same incident Burton is said this web page have replied: "Sir, I'm proud to say I have committed every sin in the Decalogue. Both were still married at the time, and their affair became a scandal. Archived from the original GlГјckspilze 25 March Retrieved 28 April

Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Phipps Ogden - Episode 1. Phipps Ogden. Richard Wagner. Show all 10 episodes. White Knight. Richard Burton.

Rolf Steiner. Herbert Kappler. Chris Flanders. Edward Hewitt. Lawrence Shannon. George Holyoake. Guy Montford. Philip Rawlings.

Major Rama Safti. Mat Burke. Prince Henry. Self - Actor. Self - Guest. TV Movie documentary Self. Self - Interviewee. Jenkins, the twelfth child of an impoverished coal miner, lost his mother when he was two years old.

Burton earned a scholarship to attend Oxford University and later joined the British air force during wartime.

Burton then made his film debut in with the production The Last Days of Dolwyn. The same year he wed actress Sybil Williams; the couple would eventually have two daughters.

Though met with varying degrees of commercial and critical regard over the course of his career, Burton went on to work in more than 40 films.

The biblical story The Robe followed, for which he received an Oscar nod for best actor. In the early s, Burton met actress Elizabeth Taylor on the set of the multimillion-dollar epic Cleopatra , for which he was hired to replace actor Stephen Boyd.

Taylor said that Burton was recovering from a hangover and because he was unable to steady his trembling hands, she held his coffee to his lips and their eyes locked.

Though each was married at the time, the two embarked on a relationship that was met with scorn from traditional institutions that included the Vatican.

After Burton and Taylor divorced their respective spouses, the couple wed on March 15, Woolf earned both actors Oscar nominations, for which Taylor won.

The couple earned millions for their film roles. During this period, Burton appeared once again on Broadway in a staging of Hamlet directed by Gielgud and continued to maintain distinctive projects, garnering additional lead actor Oscar nominations for in Becket , The Spy Who Came in From the Cold and Anne of the Thousand Days Burton continued to drink heavily.

During his first term, he is said to have challenged another student to a duel after the latter mocked Burton's moustache.

Burton continued to gratify his love of languages by studying Arabic ; he also spent his time learning falconry and fencing.

In April , he attended a steeplechase in deliberate violation of college rules and subsequently dared to tell the college authorities that students should be allowed to attend such events.

Hoping to be merely " rusticated "—that is, suspended with the possibility of reinstatement, the punishment received by some less provocative students who had also visited the steeplechase—he was instead permanently expelled from Trinity College.

According to Ed Rice , speaking on Burton's university days, "He stirred the bile of the dons by speaking real - that is, Roman-Latin instead of the artificial type peculiar to England, and he spoke Greek Romaically, with the accent of Athens, as he had learned it from a greek merchant at Marseilles, as well as the classical forms.

Such a linguistic feat was a tribute to Burton's remarkable ear and memory, for he was only a teenager when he was in Italy and southern France.

In his own words, "fit for nothing but to be shot at for six pence a day", [13] Burton enlisted in the army of the East India Company at the behest of his ex-college classmates who were already members.

He hoped to fight in the first Afghan war , but the conflict was over before he arrived in India. His studies of Hindu culture had progressed to such an extent that "my Hindu teacher officially allowed me to wear the janeo Brahmanical Thread ".

While in the army, he kept a large menagerie of tame monkeys in the hopes of learning their language , accumulating sixty "words". According to Ed Rice, "Burton now regarded the seven years in India as time wasted.

Regarding Burton's Muslim beliefs, Ed Rice states, "Thus, he was circumcised, and made a Muslim, and lived like a Muslim and prayed and practiced like one.

Burton's pilgrimage to Medina and Mecca in , was his realization of "the plans and hopes of many and many a year His diary he kept in a break pocket, unseen.

Burton traveled onwards with a group of nomads to Suez , sailed to Yambu , and joined a caravan to Medina, where he arrived on 27 July, earning the title Zair.

There, he participated in the Tawaf , traveled to Mount Arafat , and participated in the Stoning of the Devil , all the while taking notes on the Kaaba , its Black Stone , and the Zamzam Well.

Departing Mecca, he journeyed to Jeddah , back to Cairo, returning to duty in Bombay. Of his journey, Burton wrote, "at Mecca there is nothing theatrical, nothing that suggests the opera, but all is simple and impressive Motivated by his love of adventure, Burton got the approval of the Royal Geographical Society for an exploration of the area, and he gained permission from the board of directors of the East India Company to take leave from the army.

His seven years in India gave Burton a familiarity with the customs and behaviour of Muslims and prepared him to attempt a Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca and, in this case, Medina.

It was this journey, undertaken in , which first made Burton famous. He had planned it whilst travelling disguised among the Muslims of Sindh, and had laboriously prepared for the adventure by study and practice including undergoing the Muslim tradition of circumcision to further lower the risk of being discovered.

Although Burton was certainly not the first non-Muslim European to make the Hajj Ludovico di Varthema did this in and Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in , [21] his pilgrimage is the most famous and the best documented of the time.

He adopted various disguises including that of a Pashtun to account for any oddities in speech, but he still had to demonstrate an understanding of intricate Islamic traditions, and a familiarity with the minutiae of Eastern manners and etiquette.

Burton's trek to Mecca was dangerous, and his caravan was attacked by bandits a common experience at the time. As he put it, though " Burton sat for the examination as an Arab linguist.

The examiner was Robert Lambert Playfair , who disliked Burton. Having been told that Burton could be vindictive, and wishing to avoid any animosity should Burton fail, Badger declined.

Playfair conducted the tests; despite Burton's success living as an Arab, Playfair had recommended to the committee that Burton be failed.

Badger later told Burton that "After looking [Burton's test] over, I [had] sent them back to [Playfair] with a note eulogising your attainments and Other members included G.

According to Burton, "A tradition exists that with the entrance of the first [white] Christian Harar will fall.

Burton, "assuming the disguise of an Arab merchant" called Haji Mirza Abdullah, awaited word that the road to Harar was safe.

On 3 January , Burton made it to Harar, and was graciously met by the Amir. Burton stayed in the city for ten days, officially a guest of the Amir but in reality his prisoner.

The journey back was plagued by lack of supplies, and Burton wrote that he would have died of thirst had he not seen desert birds and realized they would be near water.

Burton made it back to Berbera on 31 January Following this adventure, Burton prepared to set out in search of the source of the Nile, accompanied by Lieutenant Speke, Lieutenant G.

Herne and Lieutenant William Stroyan and a number of Africans employed as bearers. However, while the expedition was camped near Berbera , his party was attacked by a group of Somali waranle "warriors" belonging to Isaaq clan.

The officers estimated the number of attackers at In the ensuing fight, Stroyan was killed and Speke was captured and wounded in eleven places before he managed to escape.

Burton was impaled with a javelin, the point entering one cheek and exiting the other. This wound left a notable scar that can be easily seen on portraits and photographs.

He was forced to make his escape with the weapon still transfixing his head. It was no surprise then that he found the Somalis to be a "fierce and turbulent race".

While he was largely cleared of any blame, this did not help his career. He describes the harrowing attack in First Footsteps in East Africa After recovering from his wounds in London, Burton traveled to Constantinople during the Crimean War , seeking a commission.

He received one from General W. Burton returned after an incident which disgraced Beatson, and implicated Burton as the instigator of a "mutiny", damaging his reputation.

In , the Royal Geographical Society funded another expedition for Burton and Speke, "and exploration of the then utterly unknown Lake regions of Central Africa.

The Great Journey commenced on 5 June with their departure from Zanzibar, their caravan consisting of Baluchi mercenaries led by Ramji, 36 porters, eventually a total of persons, all led by the caravan leader Said bin Salim.

From the beginning, Burton and Speke were hindered by disease, malaria, fevers, and other maladies, at times both having to be carried in a hammock.

Pack animals died, and natives deserted, taking supplies with them. Yet, on 7 November , they made it to Kazeh , and departed for Ujij on 14 Dec.

Speke wanted to head north, sure they would find the source of the Nile at what he later named Victoria Nyanza , but Burton persisted in heading west.

The expedition arrived at Lake Tanganyika on 13 February Burton was awestruck by the sight of the magnificent lake, but Speke, who had been temporarily blinded, was unable to see the body of water.

By this point much of their surveying equipment was lost, ruined, or stolen, and they were unable to complete surveys of the area as well as they wished.

Burton was again taken ill on the return journey; Speke continued exploring without him, making a journey to the north and eventually locating the great Lake Victoria , or Victoria Nyanza, on 3 August.

Lacking supplies and proper instruments, Speke was unable to survey the area properly but was privately convinced that it was the long-sought source of the Nile.

Burton's description of the journey is given in Lake Regions of Equatorial Africa Speke immediately boarded the HMS Furious for London, where he gave lectures, and was awarded a second expedition by the Society.

Burton arrived London on 21 May, discovering "My companion now stood forth in his new colours, and angry rival.

There he studied Mormonism and met Brigham Young. A prolonged public quarrel followed, damaging the reputations of both Burton and Speke.

Some biographers have suggested that friends of Speke particularly Laurence Oliphant had initially stirred up trouble between the two.

Tim Jeal, who has accessed Speke's personal papers, suggests that it was more likely the other way around, Burton being jealous and resentful of Speke's determination and success.

Speke had earlier proven his mettle by trekking through the mountains of Tibet , but Burton regarded him as inferior as he did not speak any Arabic or African languages.

Despite his fascination with non-European cultures, some have portrayed Burton as an unabashed imperialist convinced of the historical and intellectual superiority of the white race, citing his involvement in the Anthropological Society , an organization that established a doctrine of scientific racism.

The two men travelled home separately. Speke returned to London first and presented a lecture at the Royal Geographical Society , claiming Lake Victoria as the source of the Nile.

According to Burton, Speke broke an agreement they had made to give their first public speech together. Apart from Burton's word, there is no proof that such an agreement existed, and most modern researchers doubt that it did.

Tim Jeal, evaluating the written evidence, says the odds are "heavily against Speke having made a pledge to his former leader".

Speke, in light of the issues he was having with Burton, had Grant sign a statement saying, among other things, "I renounce all my rights to publishing On 16 September , Burton and Speke were scheduled to debate the source of the Nile at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.

On the day before the debate, Burton and Speke sat near each other in the lecture hall. According to Burton's wife, Speke stood up, said "I can't stand this any longer," and abruptly left the hall.

That afternoon Speke went hunting on the nearby estate of a relative. He was discovered lying near a stone wall, felled by a fatal gunshot wound from his hunting shotgun.

Burton learned of Speke's death the following day while waiting for their debate to begin. A jury ruled Speke's death an accident.

An obituary surmised that Speke, while climbing over the wall, had carelessly pulled the gun after himself with the muzzle pointing at his chest and shot himself.

Alexander Maitland, Speke's only biographer, concurs. On 22 January , Burton and Isabel married in a quiet Catholic ceremony although he did not adopt the Catholic faith at this time.

Shortly after this, the couple were forced to spend some time apart when he formally entered the Diplomatic Service as consul on the island of Fernando Po, now Bioko in Equatorial Guinea.

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