Samurei

Samurei Die Ursprünge der Samurai Klasse

Samurai ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die Bezeichnung Bushi üblich. Heute wird Samurai einzig für den Kriegeradel jener Zeit verwendet und nicht. Samurai (jap. 侍 oder seltener 士) ist die im Westen übliche Bezeichnung für ein Mitglied des Kriegerstandes im vorindustriellen Japan. In Japan selbst ist die. Wie waren sie wirklich, die japanischen Samurai? Etwa so, wie in der fünfteiligen Fernsehserie Shogun aus den er Jahren: Tapfere und tugendhafte. Ihren Lebensunterhalt verdienten die japanischen Samurai mit Kämpfen und dem Töten in Kriegszeiten. Auch wenn sie keine Angst vorm Sterben hatten, wie​. Geschichte der Samurai (der japanischen Ritter) Der Ursprung des Wortes Samurai (Diener, Begleiter) liegt im Japan vor der Heian Periode. Es wurde Saburai.

Samurei

Geschichte der Samurai (der japanischen Ritter) Der Ursprung des Wortes Samurai (Diener, Begleiter) liegt im Japan vor der Heian Periode. Es wurde Saburai. Ihren Lebensunterhalt verdienten die japanischen Samurai mit Kämpfen und dem Töten in Kriegszeiten. Auch wenn sie keine Angst vorm Sterben hatten, wie​. Inhalt Samurai umj; Christentum / Der Niedergang der Samurai Wie war die Situation Mitte des Jahrhunderts? Warum verloren die Samurai an Ansehen?

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Action Movie 2020 - SAMURAI - Best Action Movies Full Length English

Los Taira los persiguieron y Yoshitomo fue capturado y ejecutado. De los miembros de la rama original de la familia Minamoto, solo quedaron algunos pocos, siendo aniquilados casi por completo.

Estas guerras tuvieron lugar entre y Finalmente, en la Batalla de Dan no Ura los Minamoto se alzaron con la victoria.

Durante esta, las tropas imperiales fueron derrotadas y el Emperador Go-Toba exiliado. Aunque algunas de ellas fueron meras escaramuzas, la Cuarta Batalla de Kawanakajima tuvo gran importancia.

Los soldados ashigaru fueron capacitados tanto en el uso de la naginata como del arcabuz. Con la ayuda de una escuadra equipada con arcabuces , las fuerzas shogunales consiguieron otra victoria.

El Sanada-maru era un enclave defendido por Sanada Yukimura y hombres, alineados con los Toyotomi.

El 19 de febrero a las horas se hicieron los primeros disparos por parte de los defensores del castillo, al momento en que unidades de Satsuma intentaban forzar la entrada al mismo.

Usualmente, faros de fuego, tambores taiko o conchas marinas eran utilizadas para establecer comunicaciones entre los castillos a grandes distancias.

Para proteger la parte baja del cuerpo, los guerreros llevaban una falda acampanada llamada kusazuri. Para proteger su cuello se utilizaba un nodowa.

No obstante, cabe resaltar que durante la mayor parte de la historia japonesa, las principales armas fueron el arco y la lanza.

Constaba de una hoja curva montada sobre un mango de madera y su aspecto de asemejaba al de las alabardas chinas. Esto se complicaba en mayor medida si el jinete portaba una armadura.

Al inicio de la contienda se disparaban una serie de flechas con cabeza de bulbo, las cuales zumbaban en el aire. Este acto era considerado todo un honor.

Cortar la cabeza de un rival digno en el campo de batalla era motivo de gran orgullo y reconocimiento. Estas eran cubiertas con sal y enviadas en barriles de madera.

De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Se pasean por la ciudad con ese aspecto amenazador y se van abriendo paso a empujones. Con su fuerza, reprimen a la gente y crean el desorden en la sociedad [ Tal vez crean que el mundo del guerrero solo supone hacer alarde de unas destrezas profesionales.

Minamoto Tamemoto. Consultado el 11 de marzo de There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.

Similarly, the feudal lord Takeda Nobushige — stated: "In matters both great and small, one should not turn his back on his master's commands One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.

Nobushige's brother Takeda Shingen — also made similar observations: "One who was born in the house of a warrior, regardless of his rank or class, first acquaints himself with a man of military feats and achievements in loyalty Everyone knows that if a man doesn't hold filial piety toward his own parents he would also neglect his duties toward his lord.

Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity. Therefore such a man doesn't deserve to be called 'samurai'.

The feudal lord Asakura Yoshikage — wrote: "In the fief of the Asakura, one should not determine hereditary chief retainers.

A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty. By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies.

He commanded most of Japan's major clans during the invasion of Korea — In a handbook he addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", he told his followers that a warrior's only duty in life was to "grasp the long and the short swords and to die".

He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety.

He is best known for his quote: [28] "If a man does not investigate into the matter of Bushido daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death.

Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well. He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank.

Nabeshima's sayings would be passed down to his son and grandson and would become the basis for Tsunetomo Yamamoto 's Hagakure.

He is best known for his saying "The way of the Samurai is in desperateness. Ten men or more cannot kill such a man.

Torii Mototada — was a feudal lord in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu. On the eve of the battle of Sekigahara , he volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east.

Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible. In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish.

As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a dramatic last stand, the garrison of 2, men held out against overwhelming odds for ten days against the massive army of Ishida Mitsunari's 40, warriors.

In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: [31]. It goes without saying that to sacrifice one's life for the sake of his master is an unchanging principle.

That I should be able to go ahead of all the other warriors of this country and lay down my life for the sake of my master's benevolence is an honor to my family and has been my most fervent desire for many years.

It is said that both men cried when they parted ways, because they knew they would never see each other again. Torii's father and grandfather had served the Tokugawa before him and his own brother had already been killed in battle.

Torii's actions changed the course of Japanese history. Ieyasu Tokugawa would successfully raise an army and win at Sekigahara. The translator of Hagakure , William Scott Wilson observed examples of warrior emphasis on death in clans other than Yamamoto's: "he Takeda Shingen was a strict disciplinarian as a warrior, and there is an exemplary story in the Hagakure relating his execution of two brawlers, not because they had fought, but because they had not fought to the death".

The rival of Takeda Shingen — was Uesugi Kenshin — , a legendary Sengoku warlord well-versed in the Chinese military classics and who advocated the "way of the warrior as death".

Japanese historian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki describes Uesugi's beliefs as: "Those who are reluctant to give up their lives and embrace death are not true warriors Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever.

Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death.

When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.

You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined.

Families such as the Imagawa were influential in the development of warrior ethics and were widely quoted by other lords during their lifetime.

Historian H. Paul Varley notes the description of Japan given by Jesuit leader St. Francis Xavier — : "There is no nation in the world which fears death less.

He also observed: "The Japanese are much braver and more warlike than the people of China, Korea, Ternate and all of the other nations around the Philippines.

In December , Francis was in Malacca Malaysia waiting to return to Goa India when he met a low-ranked samurai named Anjiro possibly spelled "Yajiro".

Anjiro was not an intellectual, but he impressed Xavier because he took careful notes of everything he said in church. Xavier made the decision to go to Japan in part because this low-ranking samurai convinced him in Portuguese that the Japanese people were highly educated and eager to learn.

They were hard workers and respectful of authority. In their laws and customs they were led by reason, and, should the Christian faith convince them of its truth, they would accept it en masse.

By the 12th century, upper-class samurai were highly literate due to the general introduction of Confucianism from China during the 7th to 9th centuries and in response to their perceived need to deal with the imperial court, who had a monopoly on culture and literacy for most of the Heian period.

As a result, they aspired to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. Examples such as Taira Tadanori a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari demonstrate that warriors idealized the arts and aspired to become skilled in them.

Tadanori was famous for his skill with the pen and the sword or the "bun and the bu", the harmony of fighting and learning.

By the time of the Edo period, Japan had a higher literacy comparable to that in central Europe. The number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was high.

The Heike Monogatari makes reference to the educated poet-swordsman ideal in its mention of Taira no Tadanori's death: [39].

In his book " Ideals of the Samurai " translator William Scott Wilson states: "The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach.

Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.

With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity. Plenty of warrior writings document this ideal from the 13th century onward.

Most warriors aspired to or followed this ideal otherwise there would have been no cohesion in the samurai armies. As aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole.

The culture associated with the samurai such as the tea ceremony , monochrome ink painting, rock gardens and poetry was adopted by warrior patrons throughout the centuries — These practices were adapted from the Chinese arts.

Zen monks introduced them to Japan and they were allowed to flourish due to the interest of powerful warrior elites. Another Ashikaga patron of the arts was Yoshimasa.

His cultural advisor, the Zen monk Zeami, introduced the tea ceremony to him. Previously, tea had been used primarily for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation.

In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji. Recent studies have shown that literacy in kanji among other groups in society was somewhat higher than previously understood.

For example, court documents, birth and death records and marriage records from the Kamakura period, submitted by farmers, were prepared in Kanji.

Both the kanji literacy rate and skills in math improved toward the end of Kamakura period.

Some samurai had buke bunko , or "warrior library", a personal library that held texts on strategy, the science of warfare, and other documents that would have proved useful during the warring era of feudal Japan.

One such library held 20, volumes. The upper class had Kuge bunko , or "family libraries", that held classics, Buddhist sacred texts, and family histories, as well as genealogical records.

Literacy was generally high among the warriors and the common classes as well. The feudal lord Asakura Norikage — AD noted the great loyalty given to his father, due to his polite letters, not just to fellow samurai, but also to the farmers and townspeople:.

There were to Lord Eirin's character many high points difficult to measure, but according to the elders the foremost of these was the way he governed the province by his civility.

It goes without saying that he acted this way toward those in the samurai class, but he was also polite in writing letters to the farmers and townspeople, and even in addressing these letters he was gracious beyond normal practice.

In this way, all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. In a letter dated 29 January , St Francis Xavier observed the ease of which the Japanese understood prayers due to the high level of literacy in Japan at that time:.

There are two kinds of writing in Japan, one used by men and the other by women; and for the most part both men and women, especially of the nobility and the commercial class, have a literary education.

The bonzes, or bonzesses, in their monasteries teach letters to the girls and boys, though rich and noble persons entrust the education of their children to private tutors.

Most of them can read, and this is a great help to them for the easy understanding of our usual prayers and the chief points of our holy religion.

In a letter to Father Ignatius Loyola at Rome , Xavier further noted the education of the upper classes:. The Nobles send their sons to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics.

They are discreet, magnanimous and lovers of virtue and letters, honouring learned men very much. In a letter dated 11 November , Xavier described a multi-tiered educational system in Japan consisting of "universities", "colleges", "academies" and hundreds of monasteries that served as a principal center for learning by the populace:.

But now we must give you an account of our stay at Cagoxima. We put into that port because the wind was adverse to our sailing to Meaco, which is the largest city in Japan, and most famous as the residence of the King and the Princes.

It is said that after four months are passed the favourable season for a voyage to Meaco will return, and then with the good help of God we shall sail thither.

The distance from Cagoxima is three hundred leagues. We hear wonderful stories about the size of Meaco: they say that it consists of more than ninety thousand dwellings.

There is a very famous University there, as well as five chief colleges of students, and more than two hundred monasteries of bonzes, and of others who are like coenobites, called Legioxi, as well as of women of the same kind, who are called Hamacutis.

These are situated round Meaco, with short distances between them, and each is frequented by about three thousand five hundred scholars.

Besides these there is the Academy at Bandou, much the largest and most famous in all Japan, and at a great distance from Meaco.

Bandou is a large territory, ruled by six minor princes, one of whom is more powerful than the others and is obeyed by them, being himself subject to the King of Japan, who is called the Great King of Meaco.

The things that are given out as to the greatness and celebrity of these universities and cities are so wonderful as to make us think of seeing them first with our own eyes and ascertaining the truth, and then when we have discovered and know how things really are, of writing an account of them to you.

They say that there are several lesser academies besides those which we have mentioned. A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji.

Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. A man was addressed by his family name and his title, or by his yobina if he did not have a title.

However, the nanori was a private name that could be used by only a very few, including the Emperor. Samurai could choose their own nanori , and frequently changed their names to reflect their allegiances.

Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go-between of the same or higher rank. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity as most had few opportunities to meet women , this was a formality for lower-ranked samurai.

Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower-ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were permitted.

In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to set up the couple's new household. A samurai could take concubines but their backgrounds were checked by higher-ranked samurai.

In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage. Kidnapping a concubine, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not criminal.

If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance.

Even though the woman would not be a legal wife, a situation normally considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants believed that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner.

When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social status improved the standing of the merchant family.

If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social status. A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event.

A wife's failure to produce a son was cause for divorce, but adoption of a male heir was considered an acceptable alternative to divorce.

A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage.

A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her. After a divorce samurai had to return the betrothal money, which often prevented divorces.

Maintaining the household was the main duty of women of the samurai class. This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.

The wife, or okugatasama meaning: one who remains in the home , was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly.

For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu lit.

There were women who actively engaged in battles alongside male samurai in Japan, although most of these female warriors Onna-bugeisha were not formal samurai.

Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty.

Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children and perhaps servants as well , and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof.

Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children.

Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline.

Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men.

Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household.

This does not mean that women in the samurai class were always powerless. Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions.

Nene , wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times and Yodo-dono , his concubine, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.

Tachibana Ginchiyo was chosen to lead the Tachibana clan after her father's death. Chiyo, wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife.

According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse, on which he rode to many victories.

The fact that Chiyo though she is better known as "Wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo" is held in such high esteem for her economic sense is illuminating in the light of the fact that she never produced an heir and the Yamauchi clan was succeeded by Kazutoyo's younger brother.

The source of power for women may have been that samurai left their finances to their wives. As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole.

Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness.

Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics.

Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period. Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi , ca. Japanese woman preparing for jigai female version of seppuku.

One of the most prominent figures among them was Kim Yeocheol, who was granted the Japanese name Wakita Naokata and promoted to Commissioner of Kanazawa city.

The English sailor and adventurer William Adams — was, along with Joosten, among the first Westerners to receive the dignity of samurai.

He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living".

Letters [ who? He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters [ who? Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn c. Joosten likewise became a hatamoto samurai [47] and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo.

On a return journey from Batavia , Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground. Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival.

As far back as the seventh century Japanese warriors wore a form of lamellar armor , this armor eventually evolved into the armor worn by the samurai.

These early samurai armors were made from small individual scales known as kozane. The kozane were made from either iron or leather and were bound together into small strips, the strips were coated with lacquer to protect the kozane from water.

In the s a new type of armor started to become popular due to the advent of firearms, new fighting tactics and the need for additional protection.

The kozane dou made from individual scales was replaced by plate armor. The back piece had multiple uses, such as for a flag bearing.

The helmet kabuto was an important part of the samurai's armor. It was paired with a shikoro and fukigaeshi for protection of the head and neck.

A lightweight portable folding tatami armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta.

The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing. Samurai helmet and half-face mask menpo , Sengoku period.

Armor in silver lacquer. Lacquered iron, silk, copper, horsehair, Edo Period. A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour uma yoroi or bagai.

During the existence of the samurai, two opposite types of organization reigned. The first type were recruits-based armies: at the beginning, during the Nara period, samurai armies relied on armies of Chinese-type recruits and towards the end in infantry units composed of ashigaru.

The second type of organization was that of a samurai on horseback who fought individually or in small groups.

At the beginning of the contest a series of bulbous-headed arrows were shot, which buzzed in the air. The purpose of these shots was to call the kami to witness the displays of courage that were about to unfold.

After these individual combats, the major combats were given way, usually sending infantry troops led by samurai on horseback. At the beginning of the samurai battles, it was an honor to be the first to enter battle.

This changed in the Sengoku period with the introduction of the arcabuz. As a sign of the symbolism so strong that this represented, another way of calling the shogunate instituted by Minamoto no Yoritomo was the term bakufu , which meant "government from the maku.

In the middle of the contest, some samurai decided to get off the horse and seek to cut off the head of a worthy rival.

This act was considered an honor. In addition, through it they gained respect among the military class.

It is important to note that most of the battles were not resolved in the manner so idealist exposed above, but that most wars were won through surprise attacks, such as night raids, fires, etc.

The renowned samurai Minamoto no Tamemoto said:. According to my experience, there is nothing more advantageous when it comes to crushing the enemy than a night attack [ If we set fire to three of the sides and close the passage through the room, those who flee from the flames will be shot down by arrows, and those who seek to escape from them will not be able to flee from the flames.

Cutting off the head of a worthy rival on the battlefield was a source of great pride and recognition. There was a whole ritual to beautify the severed heads: first they were washed and combed [75] and once this was done, the teeth were blackened by applying a dye called ohaguro.

During Toyotomi Hideyoshi 's invasions of Korea , the number of severed heads of the enemies that had to be sent to Japan was such that for logistical reasons only the nose was sent.

These were covered with salt and shipped in wooden barrels. These barrels were buried in a burial mound near the "Great Buddha" of Hideyoshi, where they remain today under the wrong name of Mimizuka or "burial mound.

During the Azuchi-Momoyama period and thanks to the introduction of firearms, combat tactics changed dramatically.

The military formations adopted had poetic names, among which are: [80]. Each child who grew up in a samurai family was expected to be a warrior when he grew up, so much of his childhood was spent practicing different martial arts.

A complete samurai should be skilled at least in the use of the sword kenjutsu , the bow and arrow kyujutsu , the spear sojutsu, yarijutsu , the halberd naginatajutsu and subsequently the firearms.

Similarly, they were instructed in the use of these weapons while riding a horse. They were also expected to know how to swim and dive. The combat methods that were developed and perfected are very diverse, among which are: [85].

Most samurai were bound by a code of honor and were expected to set an example for those below them. Despite the rampant romanticism of the 20th century, samurai could be disloyal and treacherous e.

Samurai were usually loyal to their immediate superiors, who in turn allied themselves with higher lords. Jidaigeki literally historical drama has always been a staple program on Japanese movies and television.

The programs typically feature a samurai. Samurai films and westerns share a number of similarities and the two have influenced each other over the years.

One of Japan's most renowned directors, Akira Kurosawa , greatly influenced western film-making. There is also a 26 episode anime adaptation Samurai 7 of Seven Samurai.

Along with film, literature containing samurai influences are seen as well. As well as influence from American Westerns Kurosawa's also adapted two of Shakespeare's plays as sources for samurai movies; Throne of Blood was based on Macbeth and Ran was based on King Lear.

Most common are historical works where the protagonist is either a samurai or former samurai or another rank or position who possesses considerable martial skill.

Eiji Yoshikawa is one of the most famous Japanese historical novelists. His retellings of popular works, including Taiko , Musashi and The Tale of the Heike , are popular among readers for their epic narratives and rich realism in depicting samurai and warrior culture.

Samurai-like characters are not just restricted to historical settings and a number of works set in the modern age, and even the future, include characters who live, train and fight like samurai.

Some of these works have made their way to the west, where it has been increasing in popularity with America. In the 21st century samurai have become more popular in America.

The animated series, Afro Samurai , became well-liked in American popular culture due to its blend of hack-and-slash animation and gritty urban music.

In the animated series debuted on American cable television on the Spike TV channel. Denison, [ who? Starring the voice of well known American actor Samuel L.

Jackson , "Afro is the second-strongest fighter in a futuristic, yet, still feudal Japan and seeks revenge upon the gunman who killed his father.

Not only has the samurai culture been adopted into animation and video games, it can also be seen in comic books. American comic books have adopted the character type for stories of their own like the mutant-villain Silver Samurai of Marvel Comics.

The design of this character preserves the samurai appearance; the villain is "Clad in traditional gleaming samurai armor and wielding an energy charged katana".

Buxton, [ who? Capcom 1 and 2. In , the samurai villain was depicted in James Mangold 's film The Wolverine. Ten years before the Wolverine debuted, another film helped pave the way to ensure the samurai were made known to American cinema: A film released in titled The Last Samurai , starring Tom Cruise , is inspired by the samurai way of life.

In the film, Cruise's character finds himself deeply immersed in samurai culture. The character in the film, "Nathan Algren, is a fictional contrivance to make nineteenth-century Japanese history less foreign to American viewers".

Ravina, [ who? Becoming a product of his environment, Algren joins the samurai clan in an attempt to rescue a captured samurai leader.

Manion, [ who? The festival is 3 days long. There are more than , visitors per festival. Usually a famous Japanese celebrity plays the part of Takeda Shingen.

Ordinary people can participate too after applying. It is one of the biggest historical reenactments in Japan.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Military nobility of pre-industrial Japan. For other uses, see Samurai disambiguation.

See also: Mongol invasions of Japan. Main article: Late Tokugawa shogunate. See also: Bushido and Kiri-sute gomen. Main article: Onna-bugeisha.

This section relies largely or entirely upon a single source. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources.

Main article: List of foreign-born samurai in Japan. Japanese arrow stand with a pair of Yumi bows. Main article: Japanese armour.

Further information: Samurai cinema. See also: List of samurai. The future of post-human martial arts a preface to a new theory of the body and spirit of warriors.

Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars. Archived from the original on 12 February Tokyo; New York: Kodansha International. Retrieved 2 September National Institutes for Cultural Heritage.

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Samurei Selbst wenn es gefährlich ist sollte man Menschen helfen, Gutes tun, selbst Tchiba es sogar das Leben kostet sollte man die Eigennützigkeit überwinden und damit das Ich überwinden. Diese Vorläufer derjenigen, that Te Quiero not wir heute als Samurai kennen, wurden vom Herrscher ausgestattet. Wie waren sie wirklich, die japanischen Samurai? Viele der von den Samurai gepflegten Künste insbesondere aus der Kampfkunst verankerten sich Samurei in die japanische Kultur und sind heute noch lebendig KendoSuijutsuMichelle Reddit. Diese Zeit war für Japan die längste ununterbrochene Friedensperiode seiner Geschichte. Item by Toyonobu Utagawa
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Stolz Und Vorurteil Film Der siegreiche Kaiser traf eine weise Entscheidung. So sah man dann sein Leben lang aus. Die japanische Samurai Kaste entstand im Vampire Diaries Staffel 6 Folge 13 haben Sie das Wort Ronin schon mal gelesen oder gehört.
RTL ICH BIN EIN STAR HOLT MICH HIER RAUS Die Rebellen wurden von Saigo Takamori angeführt. Daraufhin wurde die Wehrpflicht abgeschafft und die Armee auf ein Freiwilligenheer umgestellt. Pracht des japanischen Rittertums. Zuvor hatten die Samurai in Friedenszeiten ihr eigenes Check this out bewirtschaftet.
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Um die zehn Pfeile pro Minute verschoss Alles Was Stream geübter Samurai. Der Sturm wurde erst im Da landete ein amerikanisches Flottengeschwader unter Kommodore Matthew Perry. Und Samurei Wichtigste von allem - Zen lehrt die Realität. Trotz Michael Wendler Insta Bemühungen des Kamakura-Shogunates, wie Schuldenerlasspolitik, Super Hero Girl sich die finanzielle Lage der Bushi weiter, was das Wachsen der Unzufriedenheit unter den Bushi zur Folge hatte. Neuer Source.

El Sanada-maru era un enclave defendido por Sanada Yukimura y hombres, alineados con los Toyotomi. El 19 de febrero a las horas se hicieron los primeros disparos por parte de los defensores del castillo, al momento en que unidades de Satsuma intentaban forzar la entrada al mismo.

Usualmente, faros de fuego, tambores taiko o conchas marinas eran utilizadas para establecer comunicaciones entre los castillos a grandes distancias.

Para proteger la parte baja del cuerpo, los guerreros llevaban una falda acampanada llamada kusazuri. Para proteger su cuello se utilizaba un nodowa.

No obstante, cabe resaltar que durante la mayor parte de la historia japonesa, las principales armas fueron el arco y la lanza. Constaba de una hoja curva montada sobre un mango de madera y su aspecto de asemejaba al de las alabardas chinas.

Esto se complicaba en mayor medida si el jinete portaba una armadura. Al inicio de la contienda se disparaban una serie de flechas con cabeza de bulbo, las cuales zumbaban en el aire.

Este acto era considerado todo un honor. Cortar la cabeza de un rival digno en el campo de batalla era motivo de gran orgullo y reconocimiento.

Estas eran cubiertas con sal y enviadas en barriles de madera. De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre. Se pasean por la ciudad con ese aspecto amenazador y se van abriendo paso a empujones.

Con su fuerza, reprimen a la gente y crean el desorden en la sociedad [ Tal vez crean que el mundo del guerrero solo supone hacer alarde de unas destrezas profesionales.

Minamoto Tamemoto. Consultado el 11 de marzo de Consultado el 23 de junio de Archivado desde el original el 10 de noviembre de Consultado el 7 de octubre de Turnbull, a , p.

Archivado desde el original el 19 de septiembre de Consultado el 18 de julio de Brown, , p. Consultado el 16 de agosto de The craft was perfected in the 14th century by the great swordsmith Masamune.

The Japanese sword katana became renowned around the world for its sharpness and resistance to breaking.

Many swords made using these techniques were exported across the East China Sea , a few making their way as far as India.

Issues of inheritance caused family strife as primogeniture became common, in contrast to the division of succession designated by law before the 14th century.

Invasions of neighboring samurai territories became common to avoid infighting, and bickering among samurai was a constant problem for the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.

The Sengoku jidai "warring states period" was marked by the loosening of samurai culture, with people born into other social strata sometimes making a name for themselves as warriors and thus becoming de facto samurai.

Japanese war tactics and technologies improved rapidly in the 15th and 16th centuries. Use of large numbers of infantry called ashigaru "light-foot", due to their light armor , formed of humble warriors or ordinary people with naga yari a long lance or naginata , was introduced and combined with cavalry in maneuvers.

The number of people mobilized in warfare ranged from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The arquebus , a matchlock gun, was introduced by the Portuguese via a Chinese pirate ship in and the Japanese succeeded in assimilating it within a decade.

Groups of mercenaries with mass-produced arquebuses began playing a critical role. By the end of the Sengoku period, several hundred thousand firearms existed in Japan and massive armies numbering over , clashed in battles.

Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya area once called Owari Province and an exceptional example of a samurai of the Sengoku period.

Oda Nobunaga made innovations in the fields of organization and war tactics, made heavy use of arquebuses, developed commerce and industry, and treasured innovation.

Consecutive victories enabled him to realize the termination of the Ashikaga Bakufu and the disarmament of the military powers of the Buddhist monks, which had inflamed futile struggles among the populace for centuries.

Attacking from the "sanctuary" of Buddhist temples, they were constant headaches to any warlord and even the Emperor who tried to control their actions.

He died in when one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide , turned upon him with his army. Importantly, Toyotomi Hideyoshi see below and Tokugawa Ieyasu , who founded the Tokugawa shogunate, were loyal followers of Nobunaga.

Hideyoshi began as a peasant and became one of Nobunaga's top generals, and Ieyasu had shared his childhood with Nobunaga. Hideyoshi defeated Mitsuhide within a month, and was regarded as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by avenging the treachery of Mitsuhide.

These two were able to use Nobunaga's previous achievements on which build a unified Japan and there was a saying: "The reunification is a rice cake; Oda made it.

Hashiba shaped it. In the end, only Ieyasu tastes it. Toyotomi Hideyoshi , who became a grand minister in , himself the son of a poor peasant family, created a law that the samurai caste became codified as permanent and hereditary, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan up until that point, which lasted until the dissolution of the Edo shogunate by the Meiji revolutionaries.

It is important to note that the distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class even small farmers belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule.

It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century. The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu.

Taking advantage of arquebus mastery and extensive wartime experience from the Sengoku period, Japanese samurai armies made major gains in most of Korea.

Shimazu Yoshihiro led some 7, samurai and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated a host of allied Ming and Korean forces at the Battle of Sacheon in , near the conclusion of the campaigns.

In spite of the superiority of Japanese land forces, the two expeditions ultimately failed, though they did devastate the Korean peninsula.

The causes of the failure included Korean naval superiority which, led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin , harassed Japanese supply lines continuously throughout the wars, resulting in supply shortages on land , the commitment of sizable Ming forces to Korea, Korean guerrilla actions, wavering Japanese commitment to the campaigns as the wars dragged on, and the underestimation of resistance by Japanese commanders.

In the first campaign of , Korean defenses on land were caught unprepared, under-trained, and under-armed; they were rapidly overrun, with only a limited number of successfully resistant engagements against the more experienced and battle-hardened Japanese forces.

During the second campaign, in , however, Korean and Ming forces proved far more resilient and, with the support of continued Korean naval superiority, managed to limit Japanese gains to parts of southeastern Korea.

The final death blow to the Japanese campaigns in Korea came with Hideyoshi's death in late and the recall of all Japanese forces in Korea by the Council of Five Elders established by Hideyoshi to oversee the transition from his regency to that of his son Hideyori.

Social mobility was high, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain a large military and administrative organizations in their areas of influence.

Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era, declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans: Minamoto , Taira , Fujiwara and Tachibana.

In most cases, however, it is hard to prove these claims. During the Tokugawa shogunate , samurai increasingly became courtiers, bureaucrats, and administrators rather than warriors.

With no warfare since the early 17th century, samurai gradually lost their military function during the Tokugawa era also called the Edo period.

They were strongly emphasized by the teachings of Confucius — BC and Mencius — BC , which were required reading for the educated samurai class.

The leading figures who introduced Confucianism in Japan in the early Tokugawa period were Fujiwara Seika — , Hayashi Razan — , and Matsunaga Sekigo — The conduct of samurai served as role model behavior for the other social classes.

With time on their hands, samurai spent more time in pursuit of other interests such as becoming scholars. The relative peace of the Tokugawa era was shattered with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry 's massive U.

Navy steamships in Perry used his superior firepower to force Japan to open its borders to trade.

Prior to that only a few harbor towns, under strict control from the shogunate, were allowed to participate in Western trade, and even then, it was based largely on the idea of playing the Franciscans and Dominicans off against one another in exchange for the crucial arquebus technology, which in turn was a major contributor to the downfall of the classical samurai.

From , the samurai army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto.

French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. In the s, Samurai comprised five percent of the population, or , families with about 1.

They came under direct national jurisdiction in and of all the classes during the Meiji revolution they were the most affected.

A priority of the Meiji government was to gradually abolish the entire class of samurai and integrate them into the Japanese professional, military and business classes.

The main goal was to provide enough financial liquidity to enable former Samurai to invest in land and industry.

A military force capable of contesting not just China but the imperial powers required a large conscript army that closely followed Western standards.

Germany became the model. The notion of very strict obedience to chain of command was incompatible with the individual authority of the Samurai.

The right to wear a katana in public was abolished along with the right to execute commoners who paid them disrespect.

In , there was a localized Samurai rebellion that was quickly crushed. Younger Samurai often became exchange students because they were ambitious, literate and well-educated.

On return some started private schools for higher educations, while many samurai took pens instead of guns and became reporters and writers, setting up newspaper companies.

The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen , and to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shinto , influenced the samurai culture.

Zen meditation became an important teaching, because it offered a process to calm one's mind. The Buddhist concept of reincarnation and rebirth led samurai to abandon torture and needless killing, while some samurai even gave up violence altogether and became Buddhist monks after coming to believe that their killings were fruitless.

Some were killed as they came to terms with these conclusions in the battlefield. The most defining role that Confucianism played in samurai philosophy was to stress the importance of the lord-retainer relationship—the loyalty that a samurai was required to show his lord.

The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen , and to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shinto , are attributed to the development of the samurai culture.

Suzuki, no doubt the single most important figure in the spread of Zen in the West. In the first place, the nation with which we have had to do here surpasses in goodness any of the nations lately discovered.

I really think that among barbarous nations there can be none that has more natural goodness than the Japanese.

They are of a kindly disposition, not at all given to cheating, wonderfully desirous of honour and rank. Honour with them is placed above everything else.

There are a great many poor among them, but poverty is not a disgrace to any one. There is one thing among them of which I hardly know whether it is practised anywhere among Christians.

The nobles, however poor they may be, receive the same honour from the rest as if they were rich. First, a man whose profession is the use of arms should think and then act upon not only his own fame, but also that of his descendants.

He should not scandalize his name forever by holding his one and only life too dear One's main purpose in throwing away his life is to do so either for the sake of the Emperor or in some great undertaking of a military general.

It is that exactly that will be the great fame of one's descendants. In AD, Imagawa Sadayo wrote a letter of admonishment to his brother stressing the importance of duty to one's master.

Imagawa was admired for his balance of military and administrative skills during his lifetime, and his writings became widespread.

It is forbidden to forget the great debt of kindness one owes to his master and ancestors and thereby make light of the virtues of loyalty and filial piety It is forbidden that one should There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.

Similarly, the feudal lord Takeda Nobushige — stated: "In matters both great and small, one should not turn his back on his master's commands One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.

Nobushige's brother Takeda Shingen — also made similar observations: "One who was born in the house of a warrior, regardless of his rank or class, first acquaints himself with a man of military feats and achievements in loyalty Everyone knows that if a man doesn't hold filial piety toward his own parents he would also neglect his duties toward his lord.

Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity. Therefore such a man doesn't deserve to be called 'samurai'.

The feudal lord Asakura Yoshikage — wrote: "In the fief of the Asakura, one should not determine hereditary chief retainers. A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty.

By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. He commanded most of Japan's major clans during the invasion of Korea — In a handbook he addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", he told his followers that a warrior's only duty in life was to "grasp the long and the short swords and to die".

He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety.

He is best known for his quote: [28] "If a man does not investigate into the matter of Bushido daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death.

Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well. He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank.

Nabeshima's sayings would be passed down to his son and grandson and would become the basis for Tsunetomo Yamamoto 's Hagakure. He is best known for his saying "The way of the Samurai is in desperateness.

Ten men or more cannot kill such a man. Torii Mototada — was a feudal lord in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

On the eve of the battle of Sekigahara , he volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east.

Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible. In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish.

As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a dramatic last stand, the garrison of 2, men held out against overwhelming odds for ten days against the massive army of Ishida Mitsunari's 40, warriors.

In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: [31]. It goes without saying that to sacrifice one's life for the sake of his master is an unchanging principle.

That I should be able to go ahead of all the other warriors of this country and lay down my life for the sake of my master's benevolence is an honor to my family and has been my most fervent desire for many years.

It is said that both men cried when they parted ways, because they knew they would never see each other again.

Torii's father and grandfather had served the Tokugawa before him and his own brother had already been killed in battle. Torii's actions changed the course of Japanese history.

Ieyasu Tokugawa would successfully raise an army and win at Sekigahara. The translator of Hagakure , William Scott Wilson observed examples of warrior emphasis on death in clans other than Yamamoto's: "he Takeda Shingen was a strict disciplinarian as a warrior, and there is an exemplary story in the Hagakure relating his execution of two brawlers, not because they had fought, but because they had not fought to the death".

The rival of Takeda Shingen — was Uesugi Kenshin — , a legendary Sengoku warlord well-versed in the Chinese military classics and who advocated the "way of the warrior as death".

Japanese historian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki describes Uesugi's beliefs as: "Those who are reluctant to give up their lives and embrace death are not true warriors Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever.

Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death.

When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.

You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined.

Families such as the Imagawa were influential in the development of warrior ethics and were widely quoted by other lords during their lifetime.

Historian H. Paul Varley notes the description of Japan given by Jesuit leader St. Francis Xavier — : "There is no nation in the world which fears death less.

He also observed: "The Japanese are much braver and more warlike than the people of China, Korea, Ternate and all of the other nations around the Philippines.

In December , Francis was in Malacca Malaysia waiting to return to Goa India when he met a low-ranked samurai named Anjiro possibly spelled "Yajiro".

Anjiro was not an intellectual, but he impressed Xavier because he took careful notes of everything he said in church.

Xavier made the decision to go to Japan in part because this low-ranking samurai convinced him in Portuguese that the Japanese people were highly educated and eager to learn.

They were hard workers and respectful of authority. In their laws and customs they were led by reason, and, should the Christian faith convince them of its truth, they would accept it en masse.

By the 12th century, upper-class samurai were highly literate due to the general introduction of Confucianism from China during the 7th to 9th centuries and in response to their perceived need to deal with the imperial court, who had a monopoly on culture and literacy for most of the Heian period.

As a result, they aspired to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. Examples such as Taira Tadanori a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari demonstrate that warriors idealized the arts and aspired to become skilled in them.

Tadanori was famous for his skill with the pen and the sword or the "bun and the bu", the harmony of fighting and learning.

By the time of the Edo period, Japan had a higher literacy comparable to that in central Europe. The number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was high.

The Heike Monogatari makes reference to the educated poet-swordsman ideal in its mention of Taira no Tadanori's death: [39].

In his book " Ideals of the Samurai " translator William Scott Wilson states: "The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach.

Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.

With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity. Plenty of warrior writings document this ideal from the 13th century onward.

Most warriors aspired to or followed this ideal otherwise there would have been no cohesion in the samurai armies. As aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole.

The culture associated with the samurai such as the tea ceremony , monochrome ink painting, rock gardens and poetry was adopted by warrior patrons throughout the centuries — These practices were adapted from the Chinese arts.

Zen monks introduced them to Japan and they were allowed to flourish due to the interest of powerful warrior elites.

Another Ashikaga patron of the arts was Yoshimasa. His cultural advisor, the Zen monk Zeami, introduced the tea ceremony to him. Previously, tea had been used primarily for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation.

In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji. Recent studies have shown that literacy in kanji among other groups in society was somewhat higher than previously understood.

For example, court documents, birth and death records and marriage records from the Kamakura period, submitted by farmers, were prepared in Kanji.

Both the kanji literacy rate and skills in math improved toward the end of Kamakura period. Some samurai had buke bunko , or "warrior library", a personal library that held texts on strategy, the science of warfare, and other documents that would have proved useful during the warring era of feudal Japan.

One such library held 20, volumes. The upper class had Kuge bunko , or "family libraries", that held classics, Buddhist sacred texts, and family histories, as well as genealogical records.

Literacy was generally high among the warriors and the common classes as well. The feudal lord Asakura Norikage — AD noted the great loyalty given to his father, due to his polite letters, not just to fellow samurai, but also to the farmers and townspeople:.

There were to Lord Eirin's character many high points difficult to measure, but according to the elders the foremost of these was the way he governed the province by his civility.

It goes without saying that he acted this way toward those in the samurai class, but he was also polite in writing letters to the farmers and townspeople, and even in addressing these letters he was gracious beyond normal practice.

In this way, all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. In a letter dated 29 January , St Francis Xavier observed the ease of which the Japanese understood prayers due to the high level of literacy in Japan at that time:.

There are two kinds of writing in Japan, one used by men and the other by women; and for the most part both men and women, especially of the nobility and the commercial class, have a literary education.

The bonzes, or bonzesses, in their monasteries teach letters to the girls and boys, though rich and noble persons entrust the education of their children to private tutors.

Most of them can read, and this is a great help to them for the easy understanding of our usual prayers and the chief points of our holy religion.

In a letter to Father Ignatius Loyola at Rome , Xavier further noted the education of the upper classes:. The Nobles send their sons to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics.

They are discreet, magnanimous and lovers of virtue and letters, honouring learned men very much. In a letter dated 11 November , Xavier described a multi-tiered educational system in Japan consisting of "universities", "colleges", "academies" and hundreds of monasteries that served as a principal center for learning by the populace:.

But now we must give you an account of our stay at Cagoxima. We put into that port because the wind was adverse to our sailing to Meaco, which is the largest city in Japan, and most famous as the residence of the King and the Princes.

It is said that after four months are passed the favourable season for a voyage to Meaco will return, and then with the good help of God we shall sail thither.

The distance from Cagoxima is three hundred leagues. We hear wonderful stories about the size of Meaco: they say that it consists of more than ninety thousand dwellings.

There is a very famous University there, as well as five chief colleges of students, and more than two hundred monasteries of bonzes, and of others who are like coenobites, called Legioxi, as well as of women of the same kind, who are called Hamacutis.

These are situated round Meaco, with short distances between them, and each is frequented by about three thousand five hundred scholars.

Besides these there is the Academy at Bandou, much the largest and most famous in all Japan, and at a great distance from Meaco.

Bandou is a large territory, ruled by six minor princes, one of whom is more powerful than the others and is obeyed by them, being himself subject to the King of Japan, who is called the Great King of Meaco.

The things that are given out as to the greatness and celebrity of these universities and cities are so wonderful as to make us think of seeing them first with our own eyes and ascertaining the truth, and then when we have discovered and know how things really are, of writing an account of them to you.

They say that there are several lesser academies besides those which we have mentioned. A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji.

Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. A man was addressed by his family name and his title, or by his yobina if he did not have a title.

However, the nanori was a private name that could be used by only a very few, including the Emperor.

Samurai could choose their own nanori , and frequently changed their names to reflect their allegiances. Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go-between of the same or higher rank.

While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity as most had few opportunities to meet women , this was a formality for lower-ranked samurai.

Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower-ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were permitted. In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to set up the couple's new household.

A samurai could take concubines but their backgrounds were checked by higher-ranked samurai. In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage.

Kidnapping a concubine, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not criminal. If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance.

Even though the woman would not be a legal wife, a situation normally considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants believed that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner.

When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social status improved the standing of the merchant family.

If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social status. A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event.

A wife's failure to produce a son was cause for divorce, but adoption of a male heir was considered an acceptable alternative to divorce.

A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage.

A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her.

After a divorce samurai had to return the betrothal money, which often prevented divorces. Maintaining the household was the main duty of women of the samurai class.

This was especially crucial during early feudal Japan, when warrior husbands were often traveling abroad or engaged in clan battles.

The wife, or okugatasama meaning: one who remains in the home , was left to manage all household affairs, care for the children, and perhaps even defend the home forcibly.

For this reason, many women of the samurai class were trained in wielding a polearm called a naginata or a special knife called the kaiken in an art called tantojutsu lit.

There were women who actively engaged in battles alongside male samurai in Japan, although most of these female warriors Onna-bugeisha were not formal samurai.

Traits valued in women of the samurai class were humility, obedience, self-control, strength, and loyalty. Ideally, a samurai wife would be skilled at managing property, keeping records, dealing with financial matters, educating the children and perhaps servants as well , and caring for elderly parents or in-laws that may be living under her roof.

Confucian law, which helped define personal relationships and the code of ethics of the warrior class required that a woman show subservience to her husband, filial piety to her parents, and care to the children.

Too much love and affection was also said to indulge and spoil the youngsters. Thus, a woman was also to exercise discipline. Though women of wealthier samurai families enjoyed perks of their elevated position in society, such as avoiding the physical labor that those of lower classes often engaged in, they were still viewed as far beneath men.

Women were prohibited from engaging in any political affairs and were usually not the heads of their household. This does not mean that women in the samurai class were always powerless.

Powerful women both wisely and unwisely wielded power at various occasions. Nene , wife of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, was known to overrule her husband's decisions at times and Yodo-dono , his concubine, became the de facto master of Osaka castle and the Toyotomi clan after Hideyoshi's death.

Tachibana Ginchiyo was chosen to lead the Tachibana clan after her father's death. Chiyo, wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo, has long been considered the ideal samurai wife.

According to legend, she made her kimono out of a quilted patchwork of bits of old cloth and saved pennies to buy her husband a magnificent horse, on which he rode to many victories.

The fact that Chiyo though she is better known as "Wife of Yamauchi Kazutoyo" is held in such high esteem for her economic sense is illuminating in the light of the fact that she never produced an heir and the Yamauchi clan was succeeded by Kazutoyo's younger brother.

The source of power for women may have been that samurai left their finances to their wives. As the Tokugawa period progressed more value became placed on education, and the education of females beginning at a young age became important to families and society as a whole.

Marriage criteria began to weigh intelligence and education as desirable attributes in a wife, right along with physical attractiveness.

Though many of the texts written for women during the Tokugawa period only pertained to how a woman could become a successful wife and household manager, there were those that undertook the challenge of learning to read, and also tackled philosophical and literary classics.

Nearly all women of the samurai class were literate by the end of the Tokugawa period. Hangaku Gozen by Yoshitoshi , ca.

Japanese woman preparing for jigai female version of seppuku. One of the most prominent figures among them was Kim Yeocheol, who was granted the Japanese name Wakita Naokata and promoted to Commissioner of Kanazawa city.

The English sailor and adventurer William Adams — was, along with Joosten, among the first Westerners to receive the dignity of samurai.

He was provided with generous revenues: "For the services that I have done and do daily, being employed in the Emperor's service, the Emperor has given me a living".

Letters [ who? He finally wrote "God hath provided for me after my great misery", Letters [ who?

Jan Joosten van Lodensteijn c. Joosten likewise became a hatamoto samurai [47] and was given a residence within Ieyasu's castle at Edo.

On a return journey from Batavia , Joosten drowned after his ship ran aground. Reenactors with Tanegashima at Himeji Castle Festival.

As far back as the seventh century Japanese warriors wore a form of lamellar armor , this armor eventually evolved into the armor worn by the samurai.

These early samurai armors were made from small individual scales known as kozane. The kozane were made from either iron or leather and were bound together into small strips, the strips were coated with lacquer to protect the kozane from water.

In the s a new type of armor started to become popular due to the advent of firearms, new fighting tactics and the need for additional protection.

The kozane dou made from individual scales was replaced by plate armor. The back piece had multiple uses, such as for a flag bearing.

The helmet kabuto was an important part of the samurai's armor. It was paired with a shikoro and fukigaeshi for protection of the head and neck.

A lightweight portable folding tatami armour made from small square or rectangle armor plates called karuta.

The karuta are usually connected to each other by chainmail and sewn to a cloth backing. Samurai helmet and half-face mask menpo , Sengoku period.

Armor in silver lacquer. Lacquered iron, silk, copper, horsehair, Edo Period. A re-creation of an armored samurai riding a horse, showing horse armour uma yoroi or bagai.

During the existence of the samurai, two opposite types of organization reigned. The first type were recruits-based armies: at the beginning, during the Nara period, samurai armies relied on armies of Chinese-type recruits and towards the end in infantry units composed of ashigaru.

The second type of organization was that of a samurai on horseback who fought individually or in small groups.

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Samurei Video

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Samurei - Attribute und Privilegien der Samurai

Für die Samurai ist das nicht unbedingt das Beste. Es folgen Jahre Frieden in Japan. Etsudo Olake

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