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In such an economy rents would only be a part of the total income, while in rentier economies rents take up a substantial part.
Rentier states thus rely on external rents and not on the productivity of the domestic sector. The first use of the term 'rentier states' was by economists in the early twentieth century who used the term to describe European states that extended loans to non-European governments .
Lenin viewed rentier states rentnerstaat , or usurer states, as a form of imperialism. He stated that a limited amount of rentier states, or creditor states, would accumulate capital through the export of capital to underdeveloped and politically dependent debtor states.
The modern meaning of 'rentier states' was first defined by Hossein Mahdavy  in his economic analysis of Iran .
He defined rentier states as countries that receive on a regular basis substantial amounts of external rents.
According to Mahdavy the payments for the passage of ships through the Suez canal and the payments to countries in the Middle-East to allow the passage of oil pipelines are forms of external rents.
Also the revenues of the export of oil can be seen as external rents . Mahdavy denies the idea that oil royalties are a compensation for the extraction of resources.
He shows that in the Middle-east governments and companies are able to make larger profits through monopolistic positions and price fixing.
He also shows that there is no significant relation between oil export and production processes of domestic economies in the Middle East .
They expanded on the more economic analysis of Mahdavy  by looking at the potential social and political effects of rentierism and focused on how rents were distributed and generated.
According to Beblawi an essential characteristic of rentier states is the fact that only a few are engaged in the generation of rent wealth and a majority involved in the distribution or utilization of it.
Often it is the government that is the main recipient of the external rent . It is precisely these characteristics that bring forth a specific rentier mentality.
Different from conventional economics is that this mentality breaks from the work-reward system.
In a rentier state income or wealth is gained not from productivity or risk bearing, but rather from chance or situation .
Rentier state theories can also be applied to nations which trade on their strategic resources, such as an important military base : Egypt and Jordan have traditionally extracted strategic rent from the United States given their regional geopolitical importance.
Dependent upon it as a source of income, rentier states may generate rents externally by manipulating the global political and economic environment.
Such manipulation may include monopolies , trading restrictions, and the solicitation of subsidies or aid in exchange for political influence or conversely the solicitation of loans in exchange for the reserve currency, e.
Hazem Al Beblawi suggested four characteristics of a rentier state:. The emergence of the new oil states and their increasing importance in world trade in the s brought a renewed interest in thinking on rentier economies in the aforementioned disciplines of political science and international relations.
Rentier state theory has been one of several advanced to explain the predominance of authoritarian regimes in the Middle East and the apparent lack of success of democracy in the region.
According to Douglas Yates,  the economic behavior of a rentier state. Hazem Beblawi has argued that this could create a "rentier mentality,"  while political scientist Fareed Zakaria has posited that such states fail to develop politically because, in the absence of taxes, citizens have less incentive to place pressure on the government to become responsive to their needs.
Instead, the government essentially 'bribes' the citizenry with extensive social welfare programs, becoming an allocation or distributive state.
The budget, in effect, is little more than an expenditure programme . It has also been theorized that governments that rely to a significant extent on revenues from non-market sources are not compelled to apply free market principles to create an environment conducive to economic growth.
Oil is in such demand that it does not require adherence to free market principles and economic freedom based on rule of law, security, a fair and transparent judiciary and property rights.
As a consequence, political freedom does not develop and efforts aimed at democratization are undermined.
Moreover, because control of the rent-producing resources is concentrated in the hands of the authorities, it may be used to alternately coerce or coopt their populace, while the distinction between public service and private interest becomes increasingly blurred .
There is, in the words of Noah Feldman in his book After Jihad ,. The government has only to keep its people in line so that they do not overthrow it and start collecting the oil rents themselves.
Feldman . Consequently, in these resource-rich rentier states there is a challenge to developing civil society and democratization.
Hence, theorists such as Beblawi conclude that the nature of rentier states provides a particular explanation for the presence of authoritarian regimes in such resource rich states .
Beblawi identifies several other characteristics particularly associated with rentier oil states.
For example, where the government is the largest and ultimate employer, the bureaucracy is frequently bloated and inefficient — and indeed comes to resemble a rentier class in society.
Moreover, local laws often make it impossible for foreign companies to operate independently. This leads to a situation where citizenship becomes a financial asset.
To do business, foreign enterprises engage a local sponsor kafil who allows the company to trade in his name in return for a proportion of the proceeds — another type of rent.
In addition, the oil rent leads to secondary rents, usually stock market or real estate speculation .